KISS SIDEWINDER is equipped with two scrubbers. The right scrubber head is fitted with hose connections providing oxygen and diluent as well as Automatic Diluent Valve (ADV). The left scrubber head contains three oxygen sensors with a wire for connecting a PPO2 measuring device and a relief valve. The unit comes with a counterlung fitted between the diver’s back and the sidemount harness, which connects the scrubbers, and corrugated rubber hoses for the DSV (Dive Surface Valve).
The exhaled gas goes through none-return mushroom valves to the right scrubber head (exhale side), where oxygen is injected through a small orifice and, as needed, diluent is added via Automatic Diluent Valve or still more oxygen via Manual Add Valve. Subsequently the gas moves through the right scrubber, where it is cleaned of carbon dioxide for the first time, and is injected into the counterlung. Then inhale causes the gas to flow from the counterlung to the left scrubber (inhale side), where carbon dioxide is removed for the second time. Before the gas reaches the diver’s lungs, three oxygen sensors provide data on current PPO2 level.
Manufacture KISS SIDEWINDER set does not include: sidemount harness, tanks, sidemount regulators and oxygen tank – however there is no need to change currentlu used harness and tanks – all harness models and tank sizes are compatible with SIDEWINDER CCR. In the manufacture set there is only mounting backplate provided.
The rest of components which are in the below picture are in the manufacture set.
The only exception is the computer that monitors the level of oxygen in the loop – a user can choose Shearwater or Divesoft computer or can use his own (each option generates price differences).
There is two versions : for warm water and cold water. For diving in water with temperature bekol 16 Celsjus degrees the producent covers outside surface of canisters with special insulating material which increases efficiency of scrubber in cold water by 30%
A LITTLE MORE DETAIL
To better understand the intricacies of this equipment let us have a closer look at individual components that are characteristic of the Kiss Rebreathers brand and the Sidewinder unit in particular.
ZAWÓR RĘCZNEGO DODAWANIA TLENU (Manual Addd Valve - MAV) i DYSZA STAŁEGO PRZEPŁYWU
W jednostce Sidewinder tlen podawany jest do wydychanego gazu, tj. prawego pojemnika z absorbentem, przez dyszę stałego przepływu oraz, w razie potrzeby, manualnie. Wąż zasilający z kolei zamontowany jest w głowicy. Miejsce wtrysku zostało tu umieszczone, aby dać czas na uzyskanie jednorodnej mieszaniny przed pomiarem – gaz przepływa przez pojemnik z absorbentem, przeciwpłuco a następnie drugi pojemnik z absorbentem, dzięki czemu zanim dotrze do czujników tlenowych umieszczonych w głowicy lewego scrubbera gaz jest już dobrze wymieszany. W przypadku modelu Sidekick tlen dodawany jest do górnej części głowicy, skąd trafia do przeciwpłuca.
Przepływ tlenu z automatu tlenowego o stałym ciśnieniu międzystopniowym zapewnia dysza. Dysza ta (niewielki otwór umieszczony w MAVie) podaje, przy stałym ciśnieniu wejściowym, ściśle określony przepływ, który jest niezależny od ciśnienia otoczenia (w granicach głębokości podanych przez producenta urządzenia KISS, tj. 91m). W rezultacie otrzymujemy stały przepływ gazu o określonej wartości nawet przy wzroście głębokości. Dla utrzymania stałego ciśnienia wejściowego zastosowano specjalnie zablokowany pierwszy stopień automatu (zamiast klasycznej elastycznej membrany przenoszącej ciśnienie otoczenia zamontowano derlinową zaślepkę). Dysza umiejscowiona jest po stronie wydechowej pętli i użytkownik ma do niej łatwy dostęp na potrzeby konserwacji. Między MAVem a wężem zasilającym znajduje się zawór zwrotny (jednokierunkowy).
MAV- MANUAL ADD VALVE
The working of the KISS MAV are surprisingly simple. From the supply tank, oxygen is first buffered by the 1st stage regulator mounted on the valve. KISS installs a blanking plug in that first stage so that the IP stays fixed at around 9.9 bar, regardless of diver depth. Even when subjected to incresed ambient pressure changes at depth, the regulator's IP remains unchanged, ensuring a constant supply pressure to the outgoing supply line.
The oxygen from the regulator is then buffered again by a tiny orfice housed inside the MAV, reducing the flow to a fixed rate between 0.5-0.6l/min. On its own, this constant flow of oxygen entering the loop will generally fall just below the diver's own metabolic consumption rate of oxygen.
In order to add additional gas to increase the oxygen level within the loop, the diver simply depresses the side button on the MAV. The action bypasses the orifice to allow a larger dosage of oxygen to enter the loop. Once the button is let go, the valve, which is mechanically spring loaded, slides shut, returning the oxygen feed back to original fixed flow rate.
The frequency with which a diver will need to push the button is related to changes in depth and/or workload. The KISS Manual Add Valve (MAV) is small enough to fit the inside of your palm. It is easy to operate and can be positioned anywhere on the diver's chest or hip to make access and manipulation easy. Flow rates can be fine-tuned anywhere between 0.4 and 1l/min to fit a diver's individual metabolic rate by adjusting the 1st stage regulator IP from as low as 8 bar to as high as 13 bar.
The sidewinder utilizes a single counterlung which is approximately 10 liters. The counter-lung has been positioned between the body and the harness. This positioning creates a clear chest area for diving, making it easy to work with stage cylinders and reduce vision impairment caused by bulky front or shoulder mounting counter-lung. The Kiss Spirit Sidewinder has 2 different counterlungs available. The lungs have approximately the same volume, the difference is shape.
DSV – MOUTHPIECE
The unit includes standard rebreather mouthpiece. The mouthpiece on this system is a Dive Surface Valve (DSV) and does not include bailout system as other rebreather mouthpieces do. The loop hoses will have 4 ballast rings, for a total 8 rings on the breathing loop. They should be positioned so that the loop hoses are neutral, and the mouthpiece is not pulling in your mouth.
The KISS Sidewinder has a unique dual scrubber-system. The gas flow is from DSV clockwise to the right-side scrubber canister to the counter-lung fitted below it through to the second scrubber canister on the left side. Then back to the DSV.
This configuration has some important advantages: a compact rebreather design, low work of breathing resistance, higher safety level and flood tolerance, efficient use of scrubber/absorbent.
The absorbent material recommended for the KISS Sidewinder is manufactured by MP United (Molecular Products) and has a grain size of 2.5-5.0 mm. It is referred to as 4-8 grade or „CD”. Although the finer “797” or 8-12 grade can be used and give you longer duration it does create more of an effort to breathe through.
The capacity between the two canisters is approximately 3 kg and duration time depending on the water temperature is around 3,5 hours.
It is worth mentioning that there are scrubber versions available both for warm waters and cold waters. When diving in water temperature below 16 Celsius degrees, it is advisable to use scrubbers coated with a special insulating material, which increases the efficiency of the scrubber by up to 30%.
Should a diver wish to further expand on scrubber’s efficiency and at the same time improve comfort when diving in very cold water (2–4oC), KISS Rebreathes offers an additional option of electrically heated scrubbers.
PPO2 DISPLAYS AND INSTRUMENTATION
The Spirit Sidewinder is a true mCCR, as it does not have any on-board electrical components such as a CPU-controlled solenoid. The diver is provided PPO2 information through a basic PPO2 display and/or dive computer connected to the three 22-D type oxygen sensors housed in the scrubber. The cell chamber for the three sensors sits below a removable sensor plate in the top of the left scrubber head. For technical diving, or for those who like diving redundant PPO2 monitoring systems, a second computer, HUD, or display can be added through a second available port in the head.
The KISS Spirit Sidewinder must be equipped with a sidemount harness (not included in the set). Depending on which harness you choose, an adapter plate may be necessary. While the device can be used with any sidemount harness, when making the purchase one should indicate the model of harness used to select the best-fitted adapter plate (included in the set).
It is also necessary to select appropriate cylinders for the KISS Sidewinder unit. While it is mostly a matter of personal choice, typically 0.85–2 liter cylinders are considered enough. In sports diving such cylinders are commonly used as pony/bailout or argon cylinders. Should we consider going for larger cylinders? Once you look at the capability of the scrubber stack, the answer is pretty obvious. A full 2 liter cylinder will leak oxygen at 0.7 liters per minute irrespective of depth, giving over 4 1/2 hours of oxygen
As for bailout and diluent cylinders we typically use default sidemount cylinders, volume of which may vary depending on the dive.